Thursday, September 24, 2009

The Chinese Political System

The People's Republic of China was founded on 1 October 1949 under the auspices of the Chinese Communist Party. The Communist Party was created in 1921 in the French concession of Shanghai. Many of the historic leaders of Chinese communism had visited France in the late 1910s and early 1920s, programs of study and work.


The Chinese Communist Party since 1949 has a leading role throughout the political system. Each level of government is headed by a Party organ, for example, the provinces are run by governors, these governors obey the guidelines set by the Party Committee of the province, and it the secretary of the committee that the real issue is a provincial. The Chinese political system is characterized by a dual control at all levels, one being in the hands of state institutions, the other in those institutions of the Party, who still rule. 

The institutions of the Party 
The Secretary General of the Communist Party and the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau are in charge of the political system. Since November 2002, Mr. Hu Jintao is General Secretary of the Party. The Standing Committee of the Political Bureau has 9 members. The principle of "democratic centralism" applies in the party, that is to say that the decisions taken by a higher authority must be applied by lower level bodies. This principle ensures the cohesion of the Party's top up basic cells. Combined with the rule of the Party over the government, while provincial governments have a fairly wide degree of discretion by the central government, it allows the central government to ensure social cohesion. 

The Party Congress is convened once every 5 years for a session of ten days. The Sixteenth National Congress, composed of more than 2000 delegates met in November 2002. He elected for 5 years a central committee, which meets at least once a year, elects the Secretary General and members of the Politburo, and adopt the proposals of the Political Bureau on policy directions and appointments of the highest leaders. The Central Committee currently has 198 members. 

The Party established organizations at all territorial levels: provinces or cities, districts, villages or neighborhoods and basic cells in companies or governments. Recently, the Party also established cells in private enterprises, but in this case, the cell's Party has no leadership on the conduct of the business. 

Today, the Chinese Communist Party has more than 66 million members, nearly 5% of the Chinese population. 

The state institutions
If the Communist Party sets guidelines and provides the rule at all levels is the state administration which is responsible for implementing the policies. 

The President of the People's Republic of China is currently Mr Hu Jintao, Jiang Zemin was army chief as president of the Central Military Commission. The formal role of the President of the People's Republic of China is comparable to that of President of the French Republic: enact laws, ratify treaties, appoint the Prime Minister and government members, receive and appoint ambassadors, all under decisions of the NPC. He is assisted by a Vice-President Zeng Qinghong currently. Both are elected for 5 years by the NPC. 

The government called the Council of State affairs. It is headed by a Prime Minister, currently Mr Wen Jiabao, followed by several Vice-Premiers, State Councilors (umbrella several departments) and ministers and chairmen of national committees. The prerogatives of the Council of State affairs and its members are comparable to those of the French government. 

The NPC, which has about 3,000 members, meets once a year for a session of ten days. Deputies are elected for 5 years by indirect suffrage. The NPC, which is under the leadership of the Communist Party as any other state body, elects the President and Vice-President and Prime Minister and may revise the Chinese Constitution, it finally elected for 5 years, a Standing Committee of about 150 members, which exercises the legislative power between two plenary sessions of the annual meeting. The Standing Committee meets approximately every two months for a one-week session to debate the bills and adopt. 

Local governments 
China has 34 local governments of provincial level, comprising the provinces themselves, autonomous regions (populated largely by national minorities like Tibet or Xinjiang), the 4 major cities with provincial status (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing) and two special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macao, including the Basic Law stipulates that they should enjoy broad autonomy. The provinces are headed by a Committee of the Chinese Communist Party and the administration is, as the center, divided between a provincial people's congress and provincial government, headed by a governor. Some provinces are densely populated, such as Henan and Shandong, which are around 100 million inhabitants. 

The provinces are in turn subdivided into smaller entities, prefectures, counties, townships, and villages or neighborhoods. The districts - more than 2,000 across the country - a very different appearance from one region to another, are on average comparable in size and population to the French.

Monday, September 21, 2009

China Visa

Get your visa to China without traveling. Save time and you no longer need to queue early in the morning at the Chinese Embassy in Paris. There are service departments that handles China Visa A to Z of obtaining your visa process. They handle all types of applications, visa tourist visa for an internship in China, business visa, tourist visa class and so on. 

You will be given excellent service from reception & preparation of your application for visa to China.  They will deposit your file to the consulate or withdrawal of your passport with the visa.  Your passport will be Shipped to you or it will be brought to your home or office.

The following steps will guide you to processing your travelling fast. If you are interested in Tourist Visa or Case Study or Training Visa, the formalities required are :
First Name 
Tel Office / Home Phone / 
Delivery Address 
Release Date 
Number of children accompanying 

Delays are expressed in business days from receipt of order and all necessary documents. They do not have time to flow back and forth. Type of visa fees Consul Times. Official expenses.  

Delays are expressed in business days from receipt of order and all necessary documents. They do not have time to flow back and forth. Type of visa fees Consul Times. Official expenses.  


DOCUMENTS to send in letter or Chronopost 
WARNING: Any file visa for China may be refused if incomplete. 
1 - The order form completed and printed (print the order form) 

2 - Regulation (check, credit card or bank transfer) 

3 - Form embassy official met JW201 (Print and fill out this form visa) 

4 - A passport photo format 4.5 x 3.5 cm 
(no photocopies or scanned picture or photo black and white on plain background) 

5 - A passport whose validity must be minimum of 6 months after the date of issuance of the visa page and a completely free of any entry visa for China 

6 - Photocopy of booking of airline tickets roundtrip travel certificate or specifying detailed passenger names, flight number, airline and date of visit to China.  

7 - Copy of hotel reservation (stating name and address of the hotel) 
If you have not booked a hotel in China.


Certificate of hosting an invitation (stating name, address and phone calling) with a copy of the first page of the passport and requesting copies of his residence permit. If the invitation is of Chinese nationality, he must provide a photocopy of the identity card of invitation. 
To provide business visa: 
Official invitation letter issued original (approval of Chinese authorities) provided by the Chinese partner and indicating the duration of srĂ©jour 
  Additional documents: 

- Foreign nationals resident in France: a copy of resident card or residence permit whose validity must be at least 6 months (unless you are a national of a Member State of the Union). 

Work certificate from the employer of a French company. 

- Children under 14 years listed on the passport of a parent: one passport photo and mention on the official form of the Chinese Embassy. 
For the visa courses provide: 
Original official invitation letter (approval of Chinese authorities) provided by your correspondent in China.